You may, at some point in your life, find yourself needing to take some data that represents a combined date and time and extract from it only the date or only the time. And should you find yourself in such a position, then this post might just save you a bunch of time.
The Magic Formulae
Assume our data looks like this:
|1||8/15/2012 3:39:59 PM|
A1 contains our date/time, and we want to put the date only in
B1 and the time only in
Extracting the Date
Put this formula in
B1 to extract the date:
B1 with whatever date format you want. Done!
If you search the web for answers to this basic question, a lot of the suggestions are to use a combination of the
DAY functions.1 That works, but it’s really silly in my opinion –
TRUNC is almost certainly faster, especially if you have a large quantity of data.
Extracting the Time
Put this formula in
C1 to extract the time:
C1 with whatever time format you want. Done!
How It Works
The best explanation I’ve found comes from an article titled How Excel Handles Dates and Times. Unfortunately it’s inexplicably an MHTML file, so you might have trouble opening it.2 I made a PDF copy of the article that should work for most people.
Anyway, from the article:
To Excel, a date is simply a number. More precisely, a date is a serial number that represents the number of days since the fictitious date of January 0, 1900. A serial number of 1 corresponds to January 1, 1900; a serial number of 2 corresponds to January 2, 1900, and so on. This system makes it possible to deal with dates in formulas.
OK, that’s pretty straightforward. But what about times?
When you need to work with time values, you simply extend the Excel date serial number system to include decimals. In other words, Excel works with times by using fractional days. For example, the date serial number for June 1, 2007, is 39234. Noon (halfway through the day) is represented internally as 39234.5.
Ahhh, there we go! Everything to the left of the decimal represents the date, and everything to the right represents the time. We don’t actually need to worry about actually converting those numbers into dates and times – Excel handles that for us, but behind the scenes everything’s a number. And since we’re just talking about numbers, we can apply some simple mathematics.
In the case of dates, we truncate the number using the TRUNC function, which simply lops off the decimal numbers. This is obviously fast – all Excel needs to do is forget about the decimal values.
The time case is a little bit tricker. We want to do the same thing, but instead of lopping off the numbers to the right of the decimal, we want to lop off the numbers to the left. Thankfully, math saves us again. The modulo operation (available in Excel via the MOD function) allows us to find the remainder of a division operation. Since we want the numbers to the right of the decimal only, we mod the value by 1. Since the modulo operation gives us the remainder, the result is the decimal portion of the original number.
Again, since this is simple math and doesn’t require any fancy conversions of the data, it’s faster, not to mention simpler to write in the little Excel formula window.
I hope we can all agree there is sufficient compelling evidence that math is awesome.